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He retired due to ill health in , and died on October 2, , aged But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. John Adams was a leader of the American Revolution, and served as the second U. The Massachusetts-born, Harvard-educated Adams began his career as a lawyer. Intelligent, patriotic, opinionated and blunt, Adams became a critic of Great Skirmishes between British troops and colonial Although most familiar as the American Revolution leader John Hancock was a signer of the Declaration of Independence in and a governor of Massachusetts.

The colonial Massachusetts native was raised by his uncle, a wealthy Boston merchant. When his uncle died, Hancock inherited his lucrative He was a gifted orator and major figure in the American Revolution.

A Brief History of Liberty by David Schmidtz

His rousing speeches — which included a speech to the Virginia legislature in which he famously Abigail Adams was one of only two women to have been both wife and mother to two U. Tensions had been building for many years between residents of the 13 American colonies and the British authorities, particularly in Massachusetts. On the night From to , the Continental Congress served as the government of the 13 American colonies and later the United States.

The First Continental Congress, which was comprised of delegates from the colonies, met in in reaction to the Coercive Acts, a series of measures This Day In History. Who Was Samuel Adams?

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Stamp Act The following year, the Stamp Act was passed. Moving Towards Revolution In response to the Boston Tea Party, Britain passed the Intolerable Acts, which closed the port of Boston and required all colonists to provide accommodation for British troops. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors.

The best part about these lists is that they bring out a larger universe of recommendations. In fact, we encourage disagreement and asked our readers to tell us what they think we got right and where they think we missed the target. This list is our opinion with books that our editorial staff hears mentioned the most, in conversations, in citations, in recommendations, and other contacts that we have.

So, this list reflects those books about which we hear frequent and consistently positive commentary from a wide variety of people. Plus, we gave preference to books that support our mission of approachable, impeccable research advancing the study of the Revolution. There are many excellent books on the fringe of our scope of concentration or pertaining to the time period, but not the specific issues of the Revolution. In terms of diversity, we find it odd that any person would look at a list like this and key in on the gender of the authors.

Each person or website, as Ruth shared below, has their own agenda, but we certainly did not compile this list with any gender bias. The same criticism could be given that there are not enough black authors, not enough European authors, not enough Native American authors, not enough young authors, etc.

Thanks again, Steve, for weighing in! And to all our readers, we say tell us more! Your recommendations are just as valid and insightful, and our community is always eager to learn about new books! Hi Ruth! Thanks for stopping by and bringing the Historiann article to our attention. There are several additional books that feature stories about and perspectives of women.

History of Philosophy RAP ~ Rucka Rucka Ali

In fact, as we pointed out in the above response to Eastjersey Steve, we believe our list accurately represents the proportion of books on the subject and certainly within our selection scope criteria written by men and women. There are simply fewer books about the Revolution authored by women. But again, our goal was not to include or exclude authors based on gender, or age, race, religion, etc. Interestingly, the proportion of female authors in our book list is similar to that in our list of contributors.

Of JAR writers, 22 are women. Clearly the majority of people writing about this subject are men, but we could easily find other subjects where the majority of authors are women. Lastly, keep in mind the scope of this list is intended to mirror the scope of our journal, predominantly featuring books that deal with the political and military aspects of the American Revolution, rather than on the time period in general. We love and value the numerous cultural and social histories, but they often extend beyond our scope, such as the three books by women that Historiann suggested. No harm intended.

Thank you for your thoughtful response. If this list indeed does reflect a close percentage of the available books on the topic of your focus, then I would agree that calling foul by way of gender bias is not appropriate. You might consider, for instance, expanding your focus to include social history.

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

I admit that when I first encountered your site, I immediately noticed that the vast majority of your contributors are male and I wondered why. Not necessarily a criticism, but an observation. Thanks again for commenting! One of the most rewarding parts of this journal is the conversations that take place after the article. She has an ongoing project to solicit syllabi which she can then publicly shame. There are people who are constructively and generously engaged in this field, and then there are people who are building their personal brands by attacking those scholars.

The distinction is worth observing here. Partisans and Redcoats by Walter Edgar — succinct yet relatively complete history of the war in South Carolina.

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It takes place in Boston and other towns from — Stegeman and Janet A. Stegeman University of Georgia Press, Maybe websites are a topic for another article. While I am impressed with the list of books I was sad to see only a few books on nautical themes.

John Locke

I believe the importance of the Continental navy, the French navy and our privateers to win the Revolution is overlooked and underappreciated. Thank you. Must have read it ten times when I was in elementary school. When did the war of independence first get described as a revolution? Was it so considered by the people who were engaged in it? Are there any modern students of the period who deny that it was a revolution? It was not until that the call for regular parliaments was backed up by the Triennial Act.

Following the Triennial Act, Parliament gained powers over taxation, over the royal succession, over appointments and over the right of the crown to wage war independently. Plus, it failed to limit the power of monarch or parliament through a body of law or enact a constitution applicable to the rights of citizens; no draft of a constitution adopted by the citizens who would be ruled by it. Because of these flaws, the Septennial Act of was able to effectively undermine the terms of the Triennial Act, and subsequent abuses of both monarchial and parliamentary power required further adaptations throughout the next centuries.

The revolutionary nature of the AWI was not simply a regime change, but rather the creation of an entirely new nation and the adoption of a new form of government by that nation. Arguably, after the Boston Port Act Massachusetts could have been described as fighting to preserve this newly adopted governmental structure already in place. However, these two colonies were unique until Crown-appointed governors closed the offices of administration in other colonies and fled the land, being replaced by locally elected legislators, judiciary, and legal officers.

The bright line might be considered the Declaration of Independence. Thus, the Declaration of Independence serves as that unique moment when the stated intent of the united colonies changed from reconciliation under the British monarch to independent governance of a new nation under democratic principles. They were aware of the elements of revolution and used the term in private correspondence long before the advent of open warfare with Britain. It absolutely did, on both sides of the Atlantic and Europe.

These are but a very few applicable examples:.

John Locke’s Early Life and Education

The change is most important, most honorable, most beneficial… Unexpected, wonderful and rapid Movements, character the British and American Revolutions — They do not appear to have been premeditated by Man. In short, if the principle on which the cause is founded, the universal blessings that are to arise from it, the difficulties that accompanied it, the wisdom with which it has been debated, the fortitude by which it has been supported, the strength of the power which we had to oppose, and the condition in which we undertook it, be all taken in one view, we may justly style it the most virtuous and illustrious revolution that ever graced the history of mankind.

In many areas of the country there was a decided preference for independence and self-governance, but in others the balance was more narrow, and the causal factors of strife more local and more personal. He became a highly influential philosopher, writing about such topics as political philosophy, epistemology, and education.

Locke's writings helped found modern Western philosophy. Influential philosopher and physician John Locke, whose writings had a significant impact on Western philosophy, was born on August 29, , in Wrington, a village in the English county of Somerset.

His father was a country lawyer and military man who had served as a captain during the English civil war. Both his parents were Puritans and as such, Locke was raised that way. Because of his father's connections and allegiance to the English government, Locke received an outstanding education. In he enrolled at Westminster School in London, where Locke earned the distinct honor of being named a King's Scholar, a privilege that went to only select number of boys and paved the way for Locke to attend Christ Church, Oxford in At Christ Church, perhaps Oxford's most prestigious school, Locke immersed himself in logic and metaphysics, as well as the classical languages.

After graduating in , he returned to Christ Church two years later for a Master of Arts, which led in just a few short years to Locke taking on tutorial work at the college. In Locke was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He graduated with a bachelor's of medicine in The two grew close and Shaftsbury eventually persuaded Locke to move to London and become his personal physician.

As Shaftsbury's stature grew, so did Locke's responsibilities. He assisted in his business and political matters, and after Shaftsbury was made chancellor, Locke became his secretary of presentations. Shaftsbury's influence on Locke's professional career and his political thoughts cannot be understated. As one of the founders of the Whig party, which pushed for constitutional monarchism and stood in opposition to the dominant Tories, Shaftsbury imparted an outlook on rule and government that never left Locke.